Army Alpha Examination; U.S. Army Alpha Intelligence Test The Army Alpha  was developed shortly after the United States entered World War I by an. Army Alpha and Army Beta intelligence testing were crucial in assessing and classifying individual soldiers during World War I. This testing. The correlation of Army Alpha with academic marks in high schools and military academies yields an appreciably higher correlation for the latter group.
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If it correlates highly it deserves much weight. They are of high officer type when they are also endowed with leadership and other necessary qualities. Men who fail in the alpha were sent to the Army Beta in order that injustice by reason of relative unfamiliarity with English may be avoided. Illiterates and men who had failed Alpha would be given a pictorial test, called the Army Beta. It is undoubtedly the case that intelegende sometimes drew conclusions about the intellectual capabilities of their fellow soldiers.
Yerkes, War Diary, p.
Army Alpha – Wikipedia
On 28 April the psychological examining of enlisted men, officer training candidates, and line officers began in earnest. Although the individual tests were inteleyence on commonly used methods, economy of time, security, measurement across a broad spectrum, and adaptability to group use were features not particularly salient within civilian testing. Sokal New Brunswick, N. See Yerkes et al.
Revising the Test | Facing History and Ourselves
Another problem that arose during its creation and administration, was that psychologist examiners had a difficult time basing a soldiers future with the Army solely on a test. For concern about fitting testing into accelerated training schedules see, e. The call for correlations with military performance was not in and of itself unusual; Yerkes himself had argued in that it was important to correlate test results with “varied measures of efficiency in living.
Brigham to Yerkes, 26 Mar. Confronted with a military drafting thousands every day, and intleegence to examine them all, the Vineland committee completed a process—already begun, to be sure, within civilian psychology—of remaking mental testing into a new sort of endeavor, one in which professional judgment was subordinated to ob- jective atmy and statistical manipulation.
The average mental age of white American adults stood just above the edge of moronity at a shocking and meager thirteen intelegsnce The tets figure became a rallying point for eugenicists who predicted doom and lamented our declining intelligence, caused by the unconstrained breeding of the poor and feeble-minded, the spread of Negro blood through miscegenation, and the swamping of an intelligent native stock by the immigrating dregs of southern and eastern Europe.
In addition, al- though there was no official policy concerning the use of intelligence test results in the selection of NCO or officer training school candidates or in the creation of units balanced in terms of intelligence, it is clear from officer reports that many com- manding officers relied on these results either to corroborate judgments already made or as a principal tool of selection. Researchers often use the Greek letters alpha and beta to differentiate between two versions of the same test.
These were given to selected groups and the results compared with the criteria laid down. Log In Sign Up. They also knew, and the military agreed with them, that a person below a certain degree of intelligence, whatever that degree might be, would not make a good soldier. Finding that the correlations “were high [about 0. Cham- bers discusses parallel developments in alphs reorganization of military recruiting according to scientific principles in To Raise an Army.
Norms are given in terms of percentiles for the adult population. From the Colonial Era to the Present, ed. Nonetheless, Dorr supported the continuation of psychological examining in the army, persuaded by two related factors.
Studies in the Sociology of Culture Past and Present,6: The first, conducted by the Adjutant General’s Office, involved directly surveying commanding officers to ascertain what benefits they had derived from the psychological work and whether they thought it should be continued. Chambers, To Raise an Army: This is the Alpha version of the Stanford-Binet intelligence aemy, which was created by Lewis Terman, a professor of education intelegencs Stanford University.
Clifford, The Citizen Soldiers: Second, a number of officers argued that the army examinations simply did not measure “in- telligence. It had to meet military criteria as well; failing them, it was rejected in favor of inferior measures of intelligence. In the tsst, however, things were differ- ent, as Yerkes was made acutely aware when the navy rejected his overtures ex- plicitly because of worries that malingerers might manipulate psychological methods to avoid their “proper” service. Through the efforts of the army’s Committee on Classification of Personnel, headed by psychologist Walter Dill Inelegence of the Carnegie Institute of Technology, new efficiency report forms were developed that mandated numerical ratings in five separate areas: What are the consequences today?
Army Group Examination Alpha: Attention had just begun alph be focused on the great center of the intelligence spectrum when the war broke out, and there was as yet little sense as to what intelligence differences among the middle group really meant.
Second, differences between Army Alpha and Thorndike’s version of Army a can be traced to changes in the goals for the testing program itself. Literacies Pedagogy Chapter At the very least, Progressivism’s effects on the military were to predispose officers, when confronted with problems not amenable to traditional army solutions, to look toward techniques that could be deemed “scientific” as the answer to allpha needs.
The former was necessitated by the demand for speed of examination and report, the latter by the desire for reliability and fairness to the individual.
Learning Civics Chapter 5: Press, ; Peter Dear, “Totius in Verba: Their scheme included three types of tests. Wisconsin Press, ; David M.
Revising the Test
Literacies’ Purposes Chapter 3: Prisoners, box, OCS, JSTOR is an independent not-for-profit organization dedicated to creating and preserving a digital archive of scholarly journals. Psychologists spent over two months in the study of results and in the revision methods. The individual performance tests also involved additional and peculiar standards of construction and evaluation.